Article 14- Justify to Equality

 The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

Article 15

The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.

  • No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to—

  (a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels, and places of public entertainment; or
  (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort                              maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the                       general public.

  • Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

Article 16: Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State

  • No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect or, any employment or office under the State
  • Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment
  • Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State
  • Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination

Article 17

 “Untouchability” is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of “Untouchability” shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

Article 25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion

  • Subject to public order, morality, and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the justify freely to profess, practice and propagate religion
  • Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law
    1. regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;
    2. providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus.

The Explanation I The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion

The Explanation II In sub clause (b) of clause reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed accordingly

 Article 26

 Freedom to manage religious affairs Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the justify

  • to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;
  • to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;
  • to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and
  • to administer such property in accordance with law

The scholar Radhika Sekar in her book The Sabarimala Pilgrimage and Ayyappan Cultus says the myth and legends of Ayyappa are not found in any of the major Puranic texts. The cult is traditionally not found in the northern parts of India.

“Ayyappa worship is not known further north than mid-Karnataka, where it was probably introduced from Kerala”, observes M.N. Srinivas in the book Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India.

On the other hand, non-Brahmin influences on the historical evolution of Sabarimala could be located. The relationship between the horseman god Ayyanar of Tamil Nadu and Ayyappa of Sabarimala is one such influence.

As T.A. Gopinatha Rao observes in Elements of Hindu Iconography, “Ayyanar is basically a village tutelary deity, worshipped by the lower castes. There are iconographical similarities between the two deities and etymologically too it appears to be feasible.”

According to historian A. Sreedhara Menon, Sabarimala history is has more to do with Buddhism than with Brahmanism. “Ayyappa devotees strictly follow non-violence, vegetarianism and abstention from sex during the two months before the pilgrimage. It resembles the Ahimsa principles practiced by Buddhists”, Menon says.

For some scholars, Ayyappa is Nilakantha Avalokiteswara depicted in the Buddhist Puranas. “It has been mentioned in the Buddhist Puranas that the temple of Nilakantha Avalokiteswara was erected somewhere in the Sahya mountains.